Ozone Water Disinfection

Ozone Water Disinfection For Waterborne Diseases

Ozone water disinfection is the primary method for eliminating and destroying pathogenic organisms in order to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases to consumers and the environment. In order to ensure disinfectant effectiveness, wastewater must be thoroughly treated prior to disinfection. An overview of some of the microorganisms found in domestic wastewater and the diseases they cause is presented here as well as how ozone can prevent these diseases.

Ozone Water Disinfection

Howe ozone works in water disinfection

The disinfection process of water is accomplished by dissociating oxygen (O2 ) molecules into oxygen atoms and then fusing the atoms with an oxygen molecule to form ozone (O3). A dielectric discharge gap containing oxygen-bearing gas is used to generate ozone in wastewater treatment plants, which apply high voltage electric current (6 to 20 kilovolts) across it. After generating ozone, it decomposes quickly to produce elemental oxygen. This is the reason for generating ozone on-site. In addition to being a very strong oxidant, ozone is also a very powerful virucide. Ozone can be used to disinfect via the following mechanisms:

  1. Indirect oxidation or destruction of cell walls, leading to leakage of cellular components outside of the cells.
  2. Reactions with radicals produced as the oxygen decomposes.
  3. Purines and pyrimidines (components of nucleic acids) may be damaged.
  4. Polymerization occurs when bonds between carbon and nitrogen are broken.
  5. Hydrogen peroxy (HO2) and hydroxyl (OH) are formed when ozone decomposes in water and these free radicals are powerful oxidizing agents. These radicals have an active role in the process of disinfection. Due to protoplasmic oxidation, bacterial cell walls are disintegrated (lysed). In order to effectively Disinfection is dependent on the susceptibility of the target organisms, the contact time, and the concentration of contact time, and the concentration of the ozone.
  6. Feed gas preparation, ozone production, ozone contact, and ozone destruction make up an ozone disinfection system. 
  7. Ozone generators operate on a feed-gas of either air or pure oxygen. Electrical discharge in a gas containing oxygen is the source of energy for production.

The most common method of generating ozone uses electrical discharge. A controlled, uniform high-voltage discharge is applied to extremely dry air or pure oxygen at either a high or low frequency. The feed gas must have a dew point of -60EC (-76EF) or lower. Pure oxygen will be about two to four times as concentrated as ozone in the gas stream generated from air.

Must check out: SPA & Home Water Ozonizers

A downflow contact chamber contains the disinfection wastewater after ozone generation. In order to disinfect the bulk liquid, the ozone must be transferred from the gas bubble to the contactor for a sufficient amount of time. Positive pressure injection (Venturi), negative pressure (co-current and counter-current), mechanically agitated, and packed tower are commonly used diffused bubble contactor types. 

Ozone Water Disinfection

The rapid consumption of ozone makes it vital that ozone stays in uniform contact with the contactor. The off-gases from the contact chamber need to be treated in order to release residual ozone into the atmosphere. To improve efficiency, ozone dosage must be kept optimal. It is possible to use pure oxygen as a source of oxygen that can produce ozone and be re-used in an aeration tank. Off-gases from the ozone destruction unit are also recycled, in addition to being destroyed. One of the results of ozonation is a higher concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the effluent. It is also possible to raise the level of DO in the receiving stream if the DO level increases, eliminating the need for reaeration. A key parameter for controlling the process is the dosage, mixing, and contact time.

As disinfection depends on ozone transfer to wastewater, ozone disinfection systems aim to solubilize ozone as much as possible in wastewater. It is the partial pressure of gaseous ozone above or in the gas feed stream that determines the amount of ozone that will dissolve in wastewater at a constant temperature. It is important for all ozone disinfection systems to undergo pilot testing and calibration prior to installation to ensure that they satisfy the requirements of the discharge permit for the area they will serve.


In plants of medium and large sizes, ozone disinfection is generally used after secondary treatment. In addition to water disinfection, ozone is also commonly used to eliminate odors. The American market has been slow to adopt ozone disinfection, despite it being widely accepted in Europe. Although ozone treatment is able to disinfect water at higher levels than either chlorine or UV, the capital costs and maintenance costs make it less competitive than available alternatives.  

Advantages of ozone generator

Ozone Water Disinfection
  • The antimicrobial properties of ozone are superior to those of chlorine.
  • A short contact time is required for ozonation (approximately 10-30 minutes).
  • Due to the rapidly decomposing nature of ozone, no harmful residuals need to be removed after ozonation.
  • In the absence of particulates in the wastewater stream, no new microorganisms can grow after ozonation. 

Final words

There are plenty of other benefits of ozone generator. All things considered, ozone generator for removing waterborne diseases works efficiently. If you have any questions, you can contact us to clarify any queries. We would love to help you out.

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